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guerra pakistan bangladesh

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2 Gennaio 2019

Il suo leader, Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, diede vita al movimento Sei punti, sostenitore di una decisa autonomia della provincia del Pakistan orientale. Successivamente, in memoria delle vittime del 1952, l'UNESCO ha dichiarato il 21 febbraio come la Giornata internazionale delle lingue locali. [40] When the ceasefire that came from the surrender of East Pakistan was finally announced, the people could not come to terms with the magnitude of defeat; spontaneous demonstrations and massive protests erupted on the streets of major metropolitan cities in Pakistan. [239] The Delhi Agreement witnessed the largest mass population transfer since the Partition of India in 1947. Aug 1, 2015 - Its is about 1971 Bangladesh liberation war. [13] La controversia linguistica raggiunse l'acme durante una serie di rivolte bengalesi, molti studenti e civili persero la vita negli scontri con la polizia del 21 febbraio 1952. Historically, this was not always the case: from 1947 to 1971 they were administered under the same government. [172], For Pakistan, the war was a complete and humiliating defeat,[32] a psychological setback that came from a defeat at the hands of rival India. After the war, the Pakistan Army's generals in the East held each other responsible for the atrocities committed, but most of the burden was laid on Lieutenant-General Tikka Khan, who earned notoriety from his actions as governor of the East; he was called the "Butcher of Bengal" because of the widespread atrocities committed within the areas of his responsibility. [58]:109–110, However, the military top brass vetoed the mission's proposal. [102]:229[103], The sinking of INS Khukri was followed by another Indian attack on Karachi port on the night of 8/9 December 1971 under the codename Python. Conflict and Development: A case study of East Pakistan Crisis, 1971. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science, 2(9). La guerra diede origine alla secessione del Pakistan dell'est, che divenne il Bangladesh indipendente. Travolto da due fronti di guerra, l'esercito pakistano non fu in grado di reggere l'urto e dichiarò la resa il 16 dicembre. Find Bangladesh Pakistan Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Bangladesh Pakistan and see latest updates, news, information from NDTV.COM. Bangladesh (in le lingua bengali বাংলােদশ litteralmente le pais de Bengala) es un pais de Asia del Sud, situate al nord del golfo de Bengala.Illo es quasi un enclave de India, con un parve frontiera commun con Myanmar.Le pais deveniva independente in 1971, le data del partition de Pakistan.Illo ha constituite antea le "Pakistan Oriental". In quanto alleato di lungo corso del Pakistan, la Repubblica Popolare Cinese reagì con preoccupazione all'evolversi della crisi nel Pakistan orientale ed alla prospettiva di un'invasione indiana del Bengala e della parte pakistana del Kashmir. The Bangladesh Force, namely the Mukti Bahini, consisting of Niyomito Bahini (Regular Force) and Oniyomito Bahini (Guerilla Force), was formed under the retired colonel Mohammad Ataul Gani Osmani. Mujibnagar. [122], India flew 1,978 sorties in the East and about 4,000 in Pakistan, while the PAF flew about 30 and 2,840 at the respective fronts. (11 November 1998). La guerra indo-pakistana del 1965 sul Kashmir mise in risalto il senso di insicurezza militare dei bengalesi: la difesa del Pakistan orientale fu affidata soltanto ad una divisione di fanteria a ranghi incompleti ed a 15 aerei da combattimento, senza alcuna presenza di forze corazzate. The war confirmed the independence of Bangladesh. [155] Furthermore, China was also among the last countries to recognise the independence of Bangladesh, refusing to do so until 31 August 1975. [159]:80[166]:57 In the wake of changing geopolitical realities, India sought to establish closer relations with regional countries such as Iran, which was a traditional ally of Pakistan. The Bangladesh Liberation War , also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide. The West Pakistani press waged a vigorous but ultimately futile campaign to counteract newspaper and radio accounts of wholesale atrocities. Nell'agosto 1971 venne sancito il trattato di amicizia indo-sovietico. Mayo 1999 : Soldados paquistaníes y milicianos ocupan puestos militares indios en la montañas de Kargil. On 19 January 1972, Mujib was inaugurated as the first President of Bangladesh, later becoming the Prime Minister of Bangladesh in 1974. Niazi (Cdr. A xunta militar buscou evasivas para aceptar os resultados, provocando a desobediencia civil, a Guerra de Liberación de Bangladesh e o xenocidio de Bangladesh de 1971. [191], Major reforms were carried out by successive governments in Pakistan after the war in the light of many recommendations made in the Hamoodur Rahman Commission Report. [137] Nixon feared that an Indian invasion of Pakistan would mean total Soviet domination of the region, and that it would seriously undermine the global position of the United States and the regional position of America's new tactical ally, China. L'attacco venne visto dall'India come un atto di aggressione non provocata segnando l'inizio ufficiale della guerra indo-pakistana. Pakistan and Bangladesh are both South Asian Muslim-majority countries. Following the end of the British Raj, the two countries formed a single state for 24 years. [98]:333 The main Indian objective on the Eastern front was to capture Dacca, and on the Western front was to prevent Pakistan from entering Indian soil. Un guerra civil in 1971 resultava in le secession de Pakistan Oriental, que passava a appellar se Bangladesh. [73]:23–24 The resulting flood of impoverished East Pakistani refugees strained India's already overburdened economy. [98]:333 This involved Indian forces in massive coordinated air, sea and land assaults on Pakistan from all fronts. Sectors of Bangladesh Liberation War.svg 1,531 × 2,138; 184 KB The IAF strikes the enemy's rail communication in West Pakistan, Dec 71.jpg 443 × 280; 81 KB জয় বাংলা.svg 400 × 400; 14 KB [51]:xxx The League's election success caused many West Pakistanis to fear that it would allow the Bengalis to draft the constitution based on the six-points and liberalism. Nella stessa notte Mujib venne arrestato. La guerra scoppiò il 26 marzo 1971, quando l'esercito pakistano, in risposta alle proteste di piazza che chiedevano il rispetto della vittoria elettorale della Lega Awami (il partito nazionalista bengalese), lanciò un'operazione militare denominata "operazione Searchlight". Niazi, the Cdr. Moreover, the army had failed to fulfill its promises of fighting to the last man. Il Ciclone di Bhola tra il 12 ed il 13 novembre causò 500.000 vittime (anche se le prime stime ufficiali parlarono di 150.000 morti e 100.000 persone scomparse). Il Pakistan riconobbe l'indipendenza del Bangladesh ottenendo in cambio la liberazione dei prigionieri di guerra. The evidence fails to support Nixon and Kissinger's own framing of the 1971 crisis as a contest between cool-headed realpolitik and idealistic humanitarianism, and instead shows that Kissinger and Nixon's policy decisions harmed their stated goals because of repeated decision-making errors. The two countries share a number of attributes. [166]:57 The United States itself accepted a new balance of power, and when India conducted a surprise nuclear test in 1974, the US notified India that it had no "interest in actions designed to achieve new balance of power."[148]. [69][139][140], Then U.S. Dopo mesi di colloqui inconcludenti, il Presidente Yahya Khan decise di non concedere la presidenza a Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, optando invece per una soluzione militare. [201][202], Young men, especially students, who were seen as possible rebels and recruiters were also targeted by the stationed military, but the extent of casualties in East Pakistan is not known, and the issue is itself controversial and contradictory among the authors who wrote books on the pogrom;[203][204] the Pakistani government denied the charges of involvement in 2015. [226] The War Commission had recommended public trial of Pakistan Army generals on the charges that they had been responsible for the situation in the first place and that they had succumbed without a fight,[227] but no actions were ever taken against those responsible, except the dismissal of chiefs of the Pakistan Army, Pakistan Air Force, Pakistan Navy, and decommissioning of the Pakistan Marines. [136]:281 During the Cold War, Pakistan was a close formal ally of the United States and also had close relations with the People's Republic of China, with whom Nixon had been negotiating a rapprochement and where he intended to visit in February 1972. La guerriglia nel Bangladesh operò per causare il maggior numero possibile di vittime pakistane attraverso incursioni e imboscate, colpendo le attività economiche e le centrali elettriche, le linee ferroviarie, i depositi di stoccaggio e le reti di comunicazione. The biggest setback was disintegration of Pakistan with emergence of Bangladesh. [163], As many Arab countries were allied with both the United States and Pakistan, it was easy for Kissinger to encourage them to participate. [27] Pakistani naval sources reported that about 720 Pakistani sailors were killed or wounded, and Pakistan lost reserve fuel and many commercial ships, thus crippling the Pakistan Navy's further involvement in the conflict. Il secondo partito, con 81 seggi, risultò il Partito Popolare Pakistano di Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto che subito si dichiarò contrario ad un governo dominato dalla componente orientale. [213] According to the government, the defendants would be charged with crimes against humanity, genocide, murder, rape and arson. El historiador musulmán Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah estimó que la conquista de la zona que hoy forma La India, Pakistán y Bangladesh trajo consigo unos 400 millones de muertos. [224], The War Report exposed many military failures, from the strategic to the tactical–intelligence levels, while it confirmed the looting, rapes and the unnecessary killings by the Pakistan military and their local agents. The loss of East Pakistan shattered the prestige of the Pakistani military. Come ogni conflitto dell’epoca, la guerra di liberazione bengalese si andò a posizionare all’interno delle dinamiche della Guerra Fredda: gli americani sostennero il Pakistan, al contrario dei sovietici, che presero le parti del Bangladesh e dell’India. I cinesi tuttavia scelsero di esercitare pressioni per ottenere un immediato cessate il fuoco, tale comportamento fu dovuto alle pesanti perdite che i cinesi, pur vittoriosi, avevano sofferto nel corso della guerra sino-indiana del 1962. Malgrado fosse maggiormente popolato, il Pakistan orientale riceveva una frazione del budget dello Stato inferiore a quella della regione occidentale. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Part of the Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts and Bangladesh Liberation War: First Row: Lt-Gen. A.A.K. [228][217][229] The Commission also claimed that "approximately 26,000 persons (were) killed during the action by the Pakistan military"[228][230] And it is just about 45 years before. Enterprise and its escort ships arrived on station on 11 December 1971. [27] A squadron of Indian Navy's Osa missile boats approached the Karachi port and launched a series of Soviet-acquired Styx missiles, that resulted in further destruction of reserve fuel tanks and the sinking of three Pakistani merchant ships, as well as foreign ships docked in Karachi. [113], After the attempted pre-emptive attack, the PAF adopted a defensive stance in response to the Indian retaliation. From East Pakistan to Bangladesh: What went wrong? Kennedy, Senator Edward, "Crisis in South Asia – A report to the Subcommittee investigating the Problem of Refugees and Their Settlement, Submitted to U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee", 1 November 1971, U.S. Govt. [92], On the evening of 3 December, at about 17:40,[citation needed] the Pakistan Air Force (PAF) launched surprise pre-emptive strikes on eleven airfields in north-western India, including Agra, which was 480 kilometres (300 mi) from the border. [4], This air action marked the official[clarification needed] start of the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971; Gandhi ordered the immediate mobilisation of troops and launched a full-scale invasion of Pakistan. [96] US President Nixon encouraged China to mobilise its armed forces along its border with India to discourage the Indian assault, but the Chinese did not respond to this encouragement since the Indian Army's Northern Command was well prepared to guard the Line of Actual Control, and was already engaging and making advances against the Pakistan Army's X Corps in the Line of Control. [179]:xxx[180] Demoralized and finding itself unable to control the situation, the Yahya administration fell when President Yahya Khan turned over his presidency to Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, who was sworn in on 20 December 1971 as President with the control of the military.[181]. Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. La Guerra d'Alliberament de Bangladesh va ser una guerra entre el Pakistan occidental (actualment Pakistan) i el Pakistan Oriental (des del 1971 oficialment Bangla Desh), que es va desenvolupar des del 26 de març fins al 17 de desembre de 1971.La guerra va començar com una insurrecció al Pakistan Oriental liderada pels Mukti Bahini (Lluitadors per la Llibertat). Bangladesh should have been thankful to Jinnah for their independence in 1947. Anque esisten desalcuerdos sobre les feches esactes de la guerra, les hostilidaes ente India y Paquistán empezaron oficialmente na tarde del 3 d'avientu de 1971. [32] Mostly, Indian leaders seemed pleased by the relative ease with which they had accomplished their goals—the establishment of Bangladesh and the prospect of an early return to their homeland of the 10 million Bengali refugees who were the cause of the war. However, other countries such as Syria and Tunisia were against interfering describing it as an internal matter of Pakistan. [209] There had been reports of Bengali insurgents indiscriminately killing non-Bengalis throughout the East; however, neither side provided substantial proofs for their claims and both Bangladeshi and Pakistani figures contradict each other over this issue. [121], The PAF played a more limited role in the operations. La sconfitta in meno di due settimane e la perdita della metà della nazione causarono un fortissimo shock all'ovest, sia nell'ambiente militare che tra i civili. They typically accuse Pakistani reporters (such as Anthony Mascarenhas) who reported on the genocide of being "enemy agents". A day by day account of the war as seen in a virtual newspaper. Il 16 dicembre 1971 il generale Niazi firmò la resa delle forze armate pakistane. Its findings were met with favourable reviews from the political leaders of West Pakistan, with the exception of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the chairman of the Pakistan Peoples Party. Il 26 marzo 1971 è considerato il giorno dell'indipendenza del Bangladesh. [123]:596 Major ground attacks were concentrated on the western border by the Pakistan Army, fighting together with the Pakistan Marines in the southern border, but the Indian Army was successful in penetrating into Pakistani soil. [153], When the war started, China reproached India for its direct involvement and infiltration in East Pakistan. Gli Stati Uniti ritardarono il riconoscimento per alcuni mesi, fino all'8 aprile 1972. [14], Nel Pakistan occidentale le rivendicazioni linguistiche furono viste come una rivolta particolarista contro gli interessi dello Stato pakistano[15] e contro l'ideologia di base del Pakistan: la "teoria delle due Nazioni"[16], i politici occidentali consideravano la lingua Urdu come un prodotto della cultura islamica indiana,[17] come affermato da Ayub Khan nel 1967, "I bengalesi orientali... sono ancora influenzati considerevolmente dalla cultura Hindu. [citation needed] The First War Report was submitted in July 1972, but it was very critically opined and penned on political misconducts of politicians and the military interference in national politics. [27] The naval attack involving the Soviet-built Osa missile boats sank the Pakistan Navy's destroyer PNS Khaibar and minesweeper PNS Muhafiz while PNS Shah Jahan was also badly damaged. [186]:100[187][188][189], Confessing at the hearings of the War Enquiry Commission, Lieutenant-General A. La Cina in ogni caso continuò a concedere forniture militari al Pakistan. Statistics show that Pakistan’s export to Bangladesh in 2014 have been of $684 million and Pakistan import value remained $54.8 million. O genocídio em Bangladesh começou em 26 de março de 1971 com o lançamento da Operação Holofote, [1] quando o Paquistão Ocidental iniciou uma ofensiva militar na ala oriental do país para reprimir os bengalis que exigiam autodeterminação.

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